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Elettaria cardamomum

AuthorityMaton
FamilyLiliopsida:Zingiberidae:Zingiberales:Zingiberaceae
Synonyms
Common namescardamom, cardamome, cardamomo, elachi, hal, kardamom, kardemom, kardemome, kardomom, karudamon, pai tou k'ou
Editor
Ecocrop code984



Notes
BRIEF DESCRIPTION A herbaceous plant reaching 2-5.5 m in height. The leafy shoots are composed of leaf sheets, and born in thick clumps. The inflorescences arise from the rootstock at the base of the leaf shoots and are 0.6-1.2 m long. The flowers are about 40 mm long and 17 mm in diameter, and white with violet streaks radiating from the centre. USES The dried fruits are used as a spice, masticatory and in medicine. It is also used for flavoring coffee. The plant yields a volatile oil used in perfumery, for flavoring liqueurs and bitters, and in preparation of tinctures. GROWING PERIOD Perennial or biennial. Come into bearing 3-4 years after planting, which may be 4-5 years after sowing. The first crop is usually small. Economical life 10-15 years. In India flowering continues from April to July, the fruits ripen irregularly 120-160 days after flowering, so that several pickings are required and the capsules are picked about 5-6 times a year. COMMON NAMES Cardamom, Cardamon, Small cardamom, Green cardamom, Malabar cardamom, Ceylon cardamom, Chhoti elaichi, Elaychi, Yelakki, Aa'lbuduaaa'l, Elathari, Velchil, Alaichi, Elaychi, Ela, Yelakkai, Elakkai, Yealak-Kayulu, Elakkayi, Ilaychi. FURTHER INF Cardamoms occur wild in the evergeen monsoon forests of the Western Ghats in southern India and Sri Lanka. In India cardamom can be grown at elevation between 600-1500 m, but the most productive altetude range is from 1000 to 1500 m. The leafy shoots are 2-5.5 m tall and susceptible to wind. Optimum yields are up to 400 kg/ha of dried capsules, while average yields are 45-280 kg/ha. Steep situations are not suitable and the crop and it will not tolerate soil disturbance appart from light weeding. Mentioned as a useful agroforestry species. Nematodes can be serious pests in cardamom nurseries.
Sources
SOURCES (E. cardamomum (L.) Maton.)
Purseglove J 1981 pp 581-643 [RAIN, TEMP, LIMIT, TEXT, DRA]
Roecklein J 1987 pp 382 [USE]
Duke J 1975 pp 15 [PH, RAIN, TEMP]
Williams C 1979a pp 223-224 [LIG, DRA, RAIN]
Purseglove J 1972 pp 528-533 [LIG, RAIN, TEMP, LIMIT, DRA]
Nair P 1980 pp 223-226 [RAIN, TEMP, TEXT, FER, DRA, USE]
Hornok L 1992 pp 275-278 [RAIN, TEMP, TEXT, DEP, DRA, LIG, USE]
Pruthi J 1991 pp 116-159 [TEXT, RAIN, LIG, USE, LIMITS]