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Curcuma longa

SynonymsCurcuma domestica Valeton (1918)
Common namesacafrao-da-India, ago, ango, ango hina, aruq as-suff, avea, cago, co hem, co khan min, common turmeric, curcuma, dilaw, ena, geelwortel, gurkmeja, haldi, kalabaga, khamin, khamin chan, khamin kaeng, khi min, khinh luong, khmin khun, khuong hoang, komeng, kunik, kunir, kunyit, kurkum, kurkuma-gelbwurzel, lavar, long turmeric, nghe, nghe vang, re'a, renga, rerega, ro miet, safran des indes, tale's, tamaravirua, temu kunyit, tius, turmeric, uat kim, ukon, yu-chin, zard-cholic, zholty imbir'
Ecocrop code828

BRIEF DESCRIPTION A hebaceous plant reaching up to 1 m with a short stem and 6-10 tufted leaves, 7-8 cm x 30-50 cm. It has primary ovate or pear shaped rhizomes, 5-8 cm x 1-5 cm and secondary finger shaped rhizomes, with an inner yellow colour and a characteristic odor and slightly bitter taste. USES The cured and dried rhizome produce an aromatic yellow-orange powder that is used as a spice, as a coloring agent and for the preparation of solvent-extracted oleoresin. As a spice it is used in rice, curry powder, and in processed foods and sauces. As a colour it is used as a textile dye and as a coloring agent in pharmacies, confectionery and food industries. The oleoresin is used in processed food and it also has medicinal properties. GROWING PERIOD Perennial. In India the crop is best planted in April-May. Leaves appear above ground in about 30 days, and the crop is harvested when the leaves wither after 270-365 days. COMMON NAMES Turmeric, Curcuma, Safran des Indes. FURTHER INF Scientific synonym: C. longa. Turmeric is believed to have been domesticated in South or Southeast Asia. It can be grown at elevations between sea level and 2000 m in the Himalayan foothills. It requires a hot and moist climate. Yields of fresh raw turmeric usually vary between 7-9 t/ha when turmeric is grown as a rain-fed crop and between 17-25 t/ha when it is grown under irrigation, but yields up to 50 t/ha can be obtained. Dried spice yields vary between 0.4-1.7 t/ha. Mentioned as a useful agroforestry species.
SOURCES (Curcuma domestica Val.)
Purseglove J 1981 pp 532-580 [RAIN, TEXT, FER, DRA, LIG]
Roecklein J 1987 pp 406 [USE, TEXT, DRA]
Duke J 1975 pp 13 [PH, RAIN, TEMP]
Williams C 1979a pp 231 [RAIN, TEXT, FER, DRA]
Purseglove J 1972 pp 522-528 [RAIN, TEXT, FER, LIG]
Nair P 1980 pp 247-250 [RAIN, TEXT, FER, DRA, USE]
Iwu M 1993 pp 164-166 [USE]
Green C 1995 pp 107-112 [USE, TEMP, RAIN, FER, DRA]