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Citrus sinensis

Authority(L.) Osbeck
SynonymsCitrus aurantium L. (var.) sinensis L. (1753).
Common namesApfelsine, arancio, Arani (Cook I), birtukan, cam, choreng, chula, jeruk manis, kahel, kiengz, krooch poosat, laranja doce, laranja vulgar, laranja-pera, limau manis, makhun, mitha nimbu, Mol, moli 'aina, moli kai, Molilecau, Molinitaiti, Molitaiti, Moliunumi, naranja, Olenisi (Tuvalu), orange, oranger, oranger doux, sava orens, somkliang, somtra, sweet orange, Swit muli, tung-chin-thi, Valencia orange
Ecocrop code720

BRIEF DESCRIPTION A small to medium-sized evergreen tree reaching 6-15 m in height, with dense, rounded crown. Fruits globose or subglobose, 4-12 cm in diameter with greenish yellow to orange peel colour. USES Fruits are eaten fresh, made into juice or frozen orange juice concentrate, jelly, wine, combined with other cooked and uncooked foods, and used as marinade and flavoring. The pulp contains 4-13% carbohydrates and is a good source of vitamin C. After juice processing, the resulting pulp is often used as cattle feed. The peel contains an essential oil used in flavoring and and essences and as a source of pectin. Mentioned as a useful agroforestry species. KILLING T -7 to -10°C. GROWING PERIOD Perennial tree. May fruit after 2-8 years and the highest yields are obtained at between 30-35 years. Lives 60 years or more. The yield cycle is 240-390 days in the subtropics and 180-210 days in the tropics. COMMON NAMES Orange, Sweet orange, Oranger doux, Arancio, Kan, Bortoqal, Laranja, Naranja, Apfelsine, Jeruk manis, Limau manis, Chula, Choreng, Sava orens, Kahel, Tung-chin-thi, Krooch poosat, Kiengz, Somkliang, Somtra, Makhun, Cam. FURTHER INF Scientific synonym: C. aurantium var. sinensis. Orange is probably native of southern China and northern Vietnam. It is grown within the latitudinal range 40°N-S. It can in the tropics be grown up to 1600-2000 m in elevation, while in subtropical areas it is most successful up to 800-1200 m. Most cultivars are intolerant of high humidity. Cool temperatures during ripening improve the quality of the fruit and it prefers a prominent change of seasons. In Florida 40 t/ha is regarded as a good yield, the average for the United States is 31 t/ha. In Trinidad and Surinam average yields may be 7-14 t/ha. (See also under Citrus ssp.).
SOURCES (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck)
Sims D (pers. comm.)
Rehm S 1991 pp 176 [USE]
Landon J 1984 pp 293 [TEXT, DRA, DEP, PH, FER, TEMP]
Samson J 1986 pp 73-138 [TEMP, RAIN, TEXT, DRA, DEP, PH]
Maas E 1990 pp 281
Rice R 1990 pp 46-59 [TEMP, LIMIT, RAIN, TEXT, DEP, DRA, FER, PH]
Roecklein J 1987 pp 241 [USE]
Hackett C 1982 pp 121 [FER, PHO, DEP, PH, TEXT, TEMP]
Eswaran H 1986 pp 14
Martin F 1984 pp 260-262 [TEMP, RAIN, PHO, DRA, FER, USE]
Hockings E 1961b pp 175-179 [TEMP, KTMP, DRA, DEP, TEXT, PH]
Verheij E 1991 pp 138-141 [USE, TEMP]