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Citrus aurantium

SynonymsCitrus aurantium L. var. amara L., Citrus aurantium var. bigaradia, Citrus bigaradia L isel., Citrus vulgaris Risso
Common namesbitter orange, sour orange
Ecocrop code711

BRIEF DESCRIPTION A small evergreen, thorny tree up to 10 m high. The flowers are large and white and the fruit is globose, often bright orange-red when ripe. USES The fruit, leaves, and flowers yield a volatile bigarade oil used in flavoring, liqueurs, perfumes, and medicines. The fruit is used in marmelades. An oil is extracted from the fruit peel and used as a flavor in bakery, soft drinks, candies, and also in cosmetic waters and perfumes. The leaves and flowers have medicinal properties. An infusion of the leaves and flowers have sedative qualities. The tree is often used as a root stock for lemon, sweet orange, and grapefruit. KILLING T -5°C to -10°C. GROWING PERIOD Perennial. It begins to bear from 3 years of age, yields increase to aboute 8 years and the economic life is 25-30 years. COMMON NAMES Sour orange, Seville orange, Bitter orange, Orange amere, Bigarada, Bigarade, Bigaradier, Naranja amarga, Amarga, Naranja agria, Arancia amarga, Arancio amaro, Melangolo, Sevilla orange, Orange de Seville, Pomeranze, Lemon itam, Limau samar, Cabuso, Krooch loviing, Som. FURTHER INF Sour orange is native of Southeast Asia. In the tropics best adapted to elevations above 500 m. (See also under Citrus ssp.) Mentioned as a useful agroforestry species.
SOURCES (C. aurantium L.)
Hackett C 1982 pp 153 [FER, PHO, DEP, PH, TEXT, TEMP]
Roecklein J 1987 pp 103 [USE]
Duke J 1975 pp 12 [PH, RAIN, TEMP]
Samson J 1986 pp 73-138 [TEMP, RAIN, TEXT, DRA, DEP, PH]
IBPGR 1986 pp 105
Tindall H 1968 pp 235
Williams C 1982
MDA 1991 pp 772
Vandenput R 1981 pp 937
Baldini E 1985
Purseglove J 1974 pp 500
Voortman R 1994 (pers. comm.)
Rehm S 1991 pp 176 [USE]
Hockings E 1961b pp 175-179 [TEMP, KTMP, DRA, DEP, TEXT, PH]
Verheij E 1991 pp 325 [USE]