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Cajanus cajan

Authority(L.) Millsp.
SynonymsCajanus bicolor DC., Cajanus cajan forma bicolor (DC.) Baker, Cajanus cajan var. bicolor (DC.) Purseglove, Cajanus cajan var. flavus (DC.) Purseglove, Cajanus flavus DC., Cajanus indicus Sprengel, Cajanus indicus var. bicolor (DC.) Kuntze, Cajanus indicus var. flavus (DC.) Kuntze, Cajanus indicus var. maculatus Kuntze, Cajanus luteus Bello, Cajanus obcordifolia D.N.Singh, Cajanus pseudocajan (Jacq.) Schinz & Guillaumin, Cytisus cajan L.
Common namesarhar, congo pea, duiweboon, frijol de arbol, gandul, gandures, guand, guandú, guandul, gungo pea, kumanda yvyra'í (Paraguay), lenteja, pigeon pea, pigeon pea bush, Pigeonerbse, pois cajan, pois congo, pois d'angole, pois d'angolie, pwa angole, quinchonchillo, quinchoncho, thuvarai
Ecocrop code576

DESCRIPTION: Annual, or more usually short-term perennial shrub that may reach 4-5 m in height, but usually 1-2 m only, woody at the base, with a variable habit, but usually erect. It has a deep and quick growing taproot. It has an angular stem resulting from three ribs starting from the base of each petiole. Leaves trifoliate, alternate set in a spiral along the stem. Leaflets oblong, lanceolate 5-10 cm long x 2-4 cm wide, pubescent likewise the stem. Lateral petioles, 2-3 mm the terminal one reaching 10-20 mm. Stipules linear 2-3 mm long, stipulets filiform 1-2 mm long. Flowers usually yellow but they may also be striated with purple streaks or plain red. Corolla 20-25 mm, with the flag 18-20 mm wide. Calyx 10-12 mm long, with 5 linear teeth. Inflorescence composed of racemes having 5-10 flowers on top of an axillary, little divided peduncle. Pods flat, with an acuminate tip, pubescent and of variable colour, 5-9 cm long x 12-13 mm wide, containing 2-9 seeds in shades of brown, red or black. There are 16,000-18,000 seeds per kg. Husks bearing deep, oblique furrows underline the septa between the seeds. The reproduction system is about 60 % autogamous, the chromosomic number is 2n = 22. USES: Pigeon pea is one of the most important grain legume components of subsistence farming systems in the semi-arid tropics. Plants are mainly grown for grain, green vegetables, and fodder. The young green seeds are eaten as vegetables and the ripe dry seeds as a pulse. The plant is also a good source of vitamin A. Ripe dry seeds can be split and made into dhal. Leaves, dried husks, seeds, and broken dhal are fed to cattle. For cut forage, it should be topped at a height of about 0.8 m. Under grazing conditions, it makes vigorous growth during the first year and then declines and ordinarily requires replanting every four to five years. The crop has long been used as a windbreak and shade for young coffee trees, forest seedling nurseries and vegetable beds, and is an important honey-producing plant. Leaves can also be fed to silkworms and lac insects and be used as green manure. It is planted as windbreaks and on contour for erosion control. It provides firewood and charcoal. Dried stalks serve for fuel, thatch and basketry. Pigeon pea is a legume, nodulated by Rhizobia of the cowpea group and is useful in rotational, alley or inter-cropping systems; providing nitrogen to the soil. KILLING T.: Does not tolerate frost, but will grow in temperatures to just above frost level. GROWING PERIOD: Perennial, often grown as a warm-season annual. Growing period is 90-180 days for annual-production, and 130-365 days per year for perennials. Most varieties can mature and produce seeds in 100-300 days. When cultivated as a pulse crop, the plant is normally grown as an annual or biennial because production declines after the first year. When grown for forage or green manure it is usually maintained for no more than 5 years. The plant will die in about 10-12 years. COMMON NAMES: Pigeon Pea, Red Gram, Congo Pea, No-eye Pea, Adhaki, Ads sudani, Alberga, Alverja, Ambrevade, Angolische erbse, Angola pea, Dhal, Red gram, Yellow dhal, Apena, Arahar, Arhar, Burusa, Cachito, Cadios, Chicharo de arbol, Chicharo de paloma, Chinchoncho, Cytise des Indes, Dau chieu, Dau trieu, Dau way, Embrevade, Ervilha de Congo, Frijol chino, Frijol de palo, Gandul, Gandures, Garbanzo falso, goode, Coongo pea, Green pea, Guando, Guanda, Guandu de fava larga, Guisante de paloma, Guisante enano, Thua rae, Kacang kayu, Kadios. FURTHER INF.: Scientific synonyms: Cajanus indicus Spreng., Cajanus flavus DC., Cytisus cajanus L. Pigeon pea is normally grown at altitudes between sea level and 2000 m, but in Venezuela some cultivars can be found as high as 3000 m. The species is adapted to moderate to low humidity. It has the photosynthesis pathway C3II. It is probably indigenous to northeastern Africa, and now cultivated throughout the tropics at latitudes between 30°N and 30°S. Optimum annual fuel production is 2 t/ha. Common yields of dry seed are 0.5-2.0 t/ha, while in India the maximum reported experimental yield is 5.0 t/ha. Seeds of the plant can bear fungi and must be treated with fungicide before shipment.
Grassland Index
Purdue NewCROP
Sims D (pers. comm.)
Eswaran H 1986 pp 17 56 71 74
Roecklein J 1987 pp 499 [USE]
Tindall H 1983 pp 254-256 [DRA, FER, PH, DEP, RAIN, TEMP, PHO]
Rice R 1990 pp 321-322 [DRA, FER, PH, TEMP, PHO]
Duke J 1979 pp 100 [PH, RAIN, TEMP]
Rehm S 1991 pp 150 [PHO, USE]
Kay E 1979 pp 322-347 [TEMP, LIG, RAIN, TEXT, DRA, DEP, PH, SAL]
Duke J 1975 pp 10 [USE]
Duke J 1981 pp 33-37 317 [DRA, PHO, LIMIT, KTMP, TEXT, SAL, RAIN, TEMP, PH]
Skerman P 1988 pp 539-547 [TEMP, KTMP, RAIN, TEXT, PH, SAL]
Hackett C 1982 pp 95 [FER, PHO, DEP, PH, TEXT, TEMP]
Bogdan A 1977 pp 325-328 [PHO, TEMP, KTMP, RAIN, TEXT, DRA, FER]
Monegat C 1991 pp 120
Nair P 1980 pp 89-93 [RAIN, TEMP, TEXT, FER, DRA, USE]
Goodin J 1990 pp 38
National RC 1980 pp 118
Onwueme I 1991 pp 305-310 [TEMP, PHO, DEP, RAIN, KTMP, TEXT, DRA]
Langer R 1991 pp 253-255 [DRA, TEXT, RAIN]
Janick J 1991 pp 597
Maesen L 1989 pp 39-41 [USE, PHO, TEMP, KTMP, RAIN, DRA, PH, SAL]