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Disturbed, open sites in grasslands, chaparral, coastal sage scrub, and riparian areas; abandoned agricultural fields. Often associated with overgrazing.
Latitude: It can be found between 26-54°N and within a similar range in the southern hemisphere.
Altitude: Found ate elevations between sea level and 500 m.
Temperature: Young tender plants may not withstand -2° while older plant may survive down to -7°C. Reported temperature range for growth is 7-38°C with the optimum between 14-28°C.
Water: It needs plenty of water to produce well. Reported annual rainfall range for growth is 450-1000 mm with the optimum between 550-800 mm.
Range & intensity: It thrives in full sunshine and does no tolerate heavy shade.
Photoperiodism: Artichokes are long day plants. Transition from vegetative to reproductive stage in seedlings depends on the interaction of the following factors: 1) plant development, being necessary to have 7 or 8 leaves. 2) Low temperature, depending on the variety, 7-13°C, and 3) Photoperiod, minimum of 10.5 hours.
Physical: It thrives in deep, well drained to dry soils with a good organic content and can grow in both light and heavy soils.
Chemical: It requires a rich soil or abundant fertilizer. Reported soil pH range for growth is 5-7.5 with the optimum between 5.5-7. It is tolerant of salt spray.
Distribution: It is native of the Mediterranean region.