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Crocus sativus

SynonymsCrocus sativum
Common namesacafrao, azafran, fan-hung-hua, kuma-kuma, romiet, saffraan, saffran, saffron, safran, safuran, sapran, shafran, Stigma Croci, za'faran, zafferano
Ecocrop code4962

BRIEF DESCRIPTION A low growning, bulbous herb with grass-like upright leaves an bright coloured flower reaching 10-30 cm in hight. USES It is cultivated for its fragrant flowers that yield the dye, saffron. The dye contains the yellow glucoside, crocin, and is used as a colour agent in foods. It is also used as a spice for food and beverage and has medicinal properties. The dye can also be used to colour textiles. GROWING PERIOD Perennial. Once planted, the corms may remain in the field for 3-12 years, but sometimes saffron is grown as an annual crop. COMMON NAMES Saffron, Saffron crocus, Safran, Azafran, Kuma-kuma, Sapran, Romiet. FURTHER INF Saffron probably originated in Greece and western Asia. It thrives best in temperate and fairly dry climates. Two periods of rainfall are adequate for good yields, one in the spring for the production of new corms and a second in the end of the summer to develop blossoms. Frosts and rains during the flowering are harmful and can damage the crop. An average yield is about 1.000.000 flowers per ha, which in turn produces about 10 kg of dried saffron.
SOURCES (C. sativus L.)
Roecklein J 1987 pp 57 [DRA, FER, RAIN, USE]
Duke J 1975 pp 13 [PH, RAIN, TEMP]
Rehms S 1991 pp 301 [USE]
Small E 1994 (pers. comm.)
Lemmens R 1991 pp 67-69 [USE, RAIN, KTMP]