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Artocarpus heterophyllus

SynonymsArtocarpus brasiliensis Gomez (1812), Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merrill, Artocarpus integra Merr., Artocarpus integrifolia auct., Artocarpus integrifolia L.F, Artocarpus integrifolia L.F & A. integra Merr., Artocarpus maxima Blanco (1837)., Artocarpus philippensis Lamk (1789)
Common namesbanun, jack fruit, jackfruit, jacquiet, kapiak, khanun, khnadr, langka, makmi, Mfenesi, miiz, miiz hnang, mít, nangka, nongko, peignai
Ecocrop code459

BRIEF DESCRIPTION A small to medium-sized evergreen tree reaching a height of 8-30 m and a trunk diameter of 30-80 cm or even up to 200 cm. It usually have a straight stem, rough, scaly bark, branches near the base and have a dense, on open sites spreading and irregular crown. The fruit is barrel- or pear-shaped, golden-yellow, 30-100 x 25-50 cm, with short pyramidal warts. USES The fruit is edible, the young fruit is cooked as a vegetable, pickled or canned, while the mature fruit is eaten fresh or made into chutney, jam, jelly and paste, or preserved as candies. The fruit pulp is also used to flavour ice-cream and beverages. The seeds are edible when boiled, roasted or dried and salted. The tree can be used as shade tree for coffee and for reforstation. The wood is durable and used for tool handles, guitars, ukuleles, timber and fuel. Leaves can be used as fodder. The bark contain tannin. Many parts of the tree have medicinal properties. Mentioned as a useful agroforestry species. KILLING TEMP Mature trees have been known to withstand -3°C, but young trees are killed by frost and old trees usually damaged. GROWING PERIOD Perennial. Some cultivars begins fruiting after 3 years but most cultivars fruit after 8 years. Ripe fruit develop 6 to 8 months after pollination, while unripe fruits used as vegetables can be harvested after 3 to 4 months. The fruiting season lasts about 4 months. COMMON NAMES Jackfruit, Jack, Jacquier, Nangka, Nongko, Banun, Kanthal, Kathal, Kathar, Phannas, Halasu, Panasa, Peignai, Pilla, Pilavu, Pienne, Khanum, Khnaor, Kapiak, Langka, Makmi, Mit, Miiz, Miiz hnang. FURTHER INF Scientific synonyms: A. integra, A. philippensis, A. brasiliensis, A. maxima. Jackfruit is indigenous to India and Malaysia, it is best grown under humid tropical lowland conditions, but will tolerate altitudes up to 1300 m or even 1600 m in elevation. It fruits up to latitudes 30°N and S in frost-free areas and bears good crops between 25°N and S. It has poor drought and flooding tolerance. Yields in experimental stations of 20-500 fruits/tree/annum have been reported with an average of 100-200 fruits. The fruits may weigh 10-50 kg each with an average between 20-30 kg. However, average yields in Malaysia and the Philippines are about 70-100 kg of fruit per tree each year.
SOURCES (A. heterophyllus Lam.)
Hackett C 1982 pp 124 [FER, PHO, DEP, PH, TEXT]
Duke J 1975 pp 7 [PH, RAIN, TEMP]
Roecklein J 1987 pp 220 [USE]
Samson J 1986 pp 311
Popenoe W 1974 pp 414-419 [RAIN, KTMP, FER, DEP, DRA]
Purseglove J 1974 pp 384-386 [TEXT, DRA, DEP]
Troup R 1921 pp 878
Voortman R 1994 (pers. comm.)
IBPGR 1891 pp 18-19
Hensleigh T 1988 pp 45-49 [DEP, DRA, TEXT, PH, KTMP, TEMP, RAIN, USE]
Verheij E 1991 pp 86-91 [USE, KTMP, DRA, SAL, RAIN, DEP, TEXT, PH]