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Azadirachta indica

AuthorityAdr. Juss.
SynonymsAntelaea azadirachta (L.) Adelb., Melia azadirachta L., Melia indica (A. Juss) Brandis
Common namesarishta, arulundi, azad darakhul-hind, azadira d'Inde, baypay, bevinamara, cha do, Indian lilac, Indischer Zedrach, indu lian shu, limba, limbo, mahogany, margosa, mindi maranngo, mwarubaini, neem, nib, niem, nim, nimb, nimmi, sadao India, sdao, thin, vepa, veppa
Ecocrop code3581

BRIEF DESCRIPTION A small to medium-sized usually evergreen tree reaching a height of 5-25 m and a trunk diameter of 30-80 cm. It branches low and form a widespreading, dense, and ovoid crown. USES Seeds and leaves yield the insect repellent azadirachtin. The tree itself is used for shade and shelter, windbreak, and as an ornamental, its timber for light construction, boatbuilding, funiture, building poles, fence posts, fuel, and charcoal, and its leaves for fodder. Bark extracts are used i the treatmment of malaria, dried flowers are used as a tonic and also seeds and friuts have medicinal properties. The bark has a high tannin content. Oil extrated from the seeds can be used in soaps, disinfectants, drugs, cosmetics, and as a lubricant. Seed residue are used as fertilizer. GROWING PERIOD Perennial, usually evergreen tree, growing 150-210 days per year. The tree can reach a height of 4-7 m after 3 years, and 5-11 m after 8 years. In West Africa, it is usually grown on a fuelwood rotation of 8 years. Withstands a dry season of 5-7 months. COMMON NAMES Neem, Nim, Margosa, Marrango, Bread tree, Holy tree, Indian lilac tree, Zanzalacht, Dogon yaro, Ogwu akom, Aforo-oyinbo, Sadu, Margosa-tree, Kohomba, Vempu, Tamaka Mambu, Mind, Ghoraneem, Bakain. FURTHER INF Scientific synonyms: Antelaea azadirachta, Melia indica, M. azadirachta. Neem is indigenous to the dry forest areas of India, Parkistan, Sri Lanka, Malaya, Indonesia, Thailand, and Myanmar. It can be found at altitudes between sea level and 1500 m and it occur naturally within the latitudinal range of 10-25°N. Optimum wood yield of 8-year-old trees is 169 m3/ha and the annual wood production is 5-18 m3/ha. The tree is drought hardy, it regenerates rapidly and it is shade tolerant in youth. It needs control, for it may aggressively invade neighboring areas and become a weed. It will not grow on seasonally waterlogged soils or in deep dry sands where the dry-season water table lies below 18 m. Apart from the deep root system the tree also has lateral roots that may extend up to 15 m away from the trunk.
Grassland Index
Webb D 1984 pp 111 [RAIN, TEMP, TEXT, PH, DRA, DEP, LIG, KTMP, LIMIT, USE]
Edwards S 1984 pp 224
Roecklein J 1987 pp 443 [USE]
Veitmeyer N 1992
Duke J 1982 pp 15 [PH, RAIN, TEMP]
National RC 1980 pp 114-117 [DRA, FER, USE, TEMP, RAIN, TEXT, DEP, PH, SAL, LIMITS]
Iwu M 1993 pp 124-128 [USE]
Joshi H 1980a pp 147-154 [TEMP, RAIN, DEP, DRA, TEXT, USE, PH]
Maydell H 1986 pp 173-176 [USE, DRA, RAIN, TEMP, KTMP, TEXT, SAL, DEP, FER, PH]
Little E 1983 pp 71-74 [TEMP, KTMP, RAIN, TEXT, DRA, DEP, SAL, USE]
Hensleigh T 1988 pp 54-57 [FER, DEP, TEXT, DRA, PH, SAL, TEMP, RAIN, USE, LIMITS]