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Artocarpus altilis

Authority(Parkinson) Fosberg
SynonymsArtocarpus camansi Blanco (1837), Artocarpus communis J.R. & G. Forster (1776), Artocarpus incisus (Thunb.) Linnaeus
Common namesarbor de pan, arbor del pan, arbre à pain, breadfruit, broodboom, broodvrucht, castana, castano de Malabar, chataignier, fruit a pain, fruta de pan, fruta pao, kamansi, kapiak, kelor, kelur, khanun-sampalor, khnaôr sâmloo, kula, kulor, kulur, marure, mazapan, pan de ano, pan de name, pan de palo, pan de pobre, pan de todo el ano, pana de pepitas, panapen, pao de massa, rimas, sa-ke, sakê, sakéé, suku, sukun, timbul, topan, tupan, ulu, uto, uto-sore
Ecocrop code3423

BRIEF DESCRIPTION A medium-sized tree reaching 20-30 m in height, with a straight trunk, 5-8 m tall and 60-180 cm in diameter, often buttressed. The tree has large alternate lobed leaves, milky latex, and grapefruit-sized or larger composite fruits, each weighing 400-1200 g. It is evergreen in the ever-wet tropics, deciduous in monsoon countries. The seedless varieties (breadfruits) usually have fruits with a pebbled surface, while the fruits of the seedy varieties (breadnuts) often are covered with short stubby pines. USES The edible fruits are used as a vegetable and the seeds are eaten boiled or roasted. The fruit is a source of vitamins A and B, starch, and calcium, it is eaten cooked, boiled, baked, roasted, or fried. Fermented fruit is made into a cheese-like paste, which is formed to cakes and baked. For longterm storage it can be cooked and dried. The bark provides a fiber and the latex are used for caulking boats, as a glue to catch birds, as a chewing gum and it also has medicinal properties. Leaves and fallen fruit are fed to livestock. The wood is used for canoes, surfboards, toys and light constructions. Trees provide shade and shelter and are grown as ornamentals. Mentioned as a useful agroforestry species. GROWING PERIOD Short-lived perennial. Bear fruit when 3-6 years old. The fruit should be picked while still firm, about 60-90 days after fruit set. The main cropping season lasts about 120 days. COMMON NAMES Breadfruit, Breadnut, Arbol del pan, Masa pan, Arbre a pain, Arvore do pao, Fruta pao, Albero del pane, Brotbaum, Saake, Sakee, Sa-ke, Sukun, Rimas, Uto, Fruta de pan, Kelur, Kelor, Timbul, Kapiak, Kamansi, Khnaor samloo, Khanun-sampalor. FURTHER INF Scientific synonym: A. communis, A. indica, A. incisa, A. camansi. Breadfruit is indigenous to the Polynesian region. It require warm, humid, tropical conditions and thrives at elevations below 600 m, but can be found up to about 2000 m and does not thrive far from the sea. It grows best in a relative humidity from 70-90% and occurs within the latitudinal range 23°N-17°S. Young trees grow better under shade but later full sun is required. The trees shed their leaves under dry conditions and are said to shed the fruit when the soil is excessively wet. Cultivars differ greatly in their tolerance of adverse conditions and there are cultivars that cope well with shallow, calcareous soils, brackish water and salt sprays. Optimal yields of 0.7-3.5 t or up to 700 fruits per tree can be expected from a mature tree. In the South Pacific, average yields may be 50-150 fruits per tree, in India 200 fruits and in Barbados the yields may be 16-30 t/ha.
SOURCES (A. altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg)
Popenoe W 1974 pp 406 (A. communis)
Roecklein J 1987 pp 477 [USE, RAIN, TEMP, LIG, TEXT, DEP, DRA]
Duke J 1979 pp 98 [PH, RAIN, TEMP]
Williams C 1979a pp 119-120 [TEMP, RAIN, DEP, DRA]
Rice R 1990 pp 113-115 [USE, TEMP]
Purseglove J 1974 pp 379-384 [RAIN, TEMP, LIG, TEXT, DEP, DRA]
Troup R 1921 pp 876 883
Nair P 1984 pp 18 [RAIN, TEMP, TEXT, DEP, DRA, USE]
Nair P 1980 pp 137-139 [RAIN, TEMP, TEXT, FER, DRA, USE]
IBPGR 1891 pp 16-17
Martin F 1984 pp 194-196 252-253 [TEMP, RAIN, PHO, DRA, TEXT, USE]
Verheij E 1991 pp 83-86 [USE, TEMP, RAIN, LIG, DEP, DRA, FER, SAL]