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Prunus amygdalus

SynonymsAmygdalus communis DC., Prunus communis Arch., Prunus dulcis Miller
Common namesalmendro, almond, amandier, amendoeira, sweet almond
Ecocrop code2397

BRIEF DESCRIPTION A small, deciduous, spreading tree from 4-10 m high often trained to a vase shape. Leaves simple, fruits ovoid-ellipsoid, 3-4 cm x 2-2.5 cm (larger in cultivated varieties), splitting at maturity, stone 2.5-3 cm x 1.5-2 cm, pitted, seed ovoid, compressed and about 1.5-2 cm x 1-1.5 cm. USES It produces edible kernels used mainly in candies, baked goods, and confectionery. The kernels are procesed into almond powder, marzipan powder, paste powder, and almond drink powder. Roasted kernels are a popular snack food. An oil is obtained from the kernels and used in cosmetic creams and lotions. Almond butter is processed like peanut butter. Shells are burned to produce electricity and are used as roughage in cattle fed. The trees also yield a gum. KILLING T Flowers are damaged at -2 to -3°C or -4°C for 30 minutes and fruits are damaged at -1°C. GROWING PERIOD Perennial deciduous tree, that begin to bear after 3-4 years and with an economical life of about 20 years. COMMON NAMES Almond, Amand, Almenda, Mandel. FURTHER INF Scientific synonym: P. dulcis, Amygdalus communis. Almond are probably a native of southeastern Asia. It can be grown at altitudes from sea level to 460 m in subtropical areas. It need 90-450 hours of winter chilling but a frost free spring. It require low to medium humidity. The introduction of 2-6 beehives per ha to almond orchards at flowering will increase fruit set and final yield. Almonds do not set fruit with there own pollen, so at least two cultivars must be planted together for cross-pollination.
SOURCES (Prunus amygdalus Batsch.)
Sims D (pers. comm.)
Hartmann T 1981 pp 589-590 [KTMP, TEMP, RAIN, TEXT, DRA]
Roecklein J 1987 pp 321 [USE]
Maas E 1990 pp 280
Duke A 1979 pp 100 (P.dulcis)
Rehm S 1991 pp 238 [USE]
Hackett C 1982 pp 131 [FER, PHO, DEP, PH, TEXT, TEMP]
Woodroof J 1979 pp 139-180 [DEP, DRA, TEXT, RAIN, TEMP]
Rice R 1990 pp 161-162 [TEMP, USE]
Wickens G 1995 pp 37-39 [USE]