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Hackett C 1982 pp 85 [FER, PHO, DEP, PH, TEXT, TEMP]
Sims D (pers. comm.)
De la Taille R 1985
Bonassieux M 1988
Bretaudeau J 1990 pp 211
Bergougnoux F 1987 pp 71
Woodroof J 1979 pp 265-297 [KTMP, DEP, FER, DRA, PH, LIMIT]
Roecklein J 1987 pp 326 [USE]
Hartmann T 1981 pp 595 [TEMP, TEXT, FER]
-3°C may kill the young sprouts, -9°C may kill the catkins when fully dormant, -13°C may kill the buds and -25°C may kill the bush.
Perennial deciduous bush. Begin to bear 6-8 years after sowing or 3-4 years after planting, yields increase to about 10 years. The ecnomical life is about 40 years.
European hazelbush, European filbert, Noisette, Avellana, Nocciola, Aveline, Cobnut.
European hazelbush is a native of Europe. It can be grown up to 1600 m of elevation in France but perform best below 1000 m. Yearly average humidity should be about 70-80% and the bush should be protected from drying winds.