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Carya illinoensis

Authority(Wangenh.) C. Koch
SynonymsCarya oliviformis (Michx. f.) Nutt., Carya pecan (Marsh.) Engl. & Graebn., Hicoria pecan (Marsh.) Britt.
Common namesPecan
Ecocrop code2231

BRIEF DESCRIPTION A tall, handsome, deciduous tree with a relatively open crown reaching 30-50 m in height. The fruits are borne in clusters of 4-12, they are globose to oblong drupes, angled and narrowly 4 winged, 2.5-7 cm x 1.25-2.5 cm. USES The nuts are used in confectionery and cakes or sold raw and salted. An edible nut is extracted from the seeds and used in the manufacture of cosmetics and certain drugs. The wood is coarse and brittle but used for fuel and tool handles. The nut shells are used as paving for walks and driveways, fuel, mulches, soil conditioners, soft abrasives in hand soap, nonskid paints and metal polishes, and for tannin. They can also be ground into flour or used as fillers in plastic wood, adhesives, and dynamite. KILLING T Tolerate considerable winter cold without damage (-20°C), but require a long frost-free growing season. Late spring frost is injurious to young trees. GROWING PERIOD Perennial. It bear after 4-5 years, and have an economical life up to 20-25 years or 130 years. Wild trees up to 1000 years old are said to exist. With a growing season of 170 days fruit delevopment is pure but the tree grows well. COMMON NAMES Pecan nut, Pacane, Noce americana, Noix de pecan, Hickory nut, Pecan, Pecannusss, Nuez de pecan, Pacana, Noix d'hickory, Noix pacane, Noix d'Amerique, Noce pecan. FURTHER INF Scientific synonyms: C. pecan, C. olivaeformis, C. oliviformis, Hicoria pecan, Hicorus olivaeformis, Juglans augustifolia, J. cylindrica, J. illinoensis, J. olivaeformis, J. pecan, J. rubra. Pecan nut is native of the rich bottom lands of the Mississippi Valley in south central United States west to Kansas and Texas and at higher altitudes south into central Mexico. It can be grown from sea level up to altitudes of 800 m. It require frost in the winter to overcome bud dormancy and permit proper vegetative growth in the spring, and the tree also require a period of two months of winter dormancy. Pecan nut perform best in areas of low to moderate humidity. Optimum temperature for photosynthesis is 27°C. Yields from 9-27 kg per tree at 8-10 years rising to 45-68 kg at 16 years while exceptional trees may yields as much as 360 kg. The optimum yield is about 2 t/ha.
SOURCES (C. illinoensis (Wagenh.) K.Koch)
Sims D (pers. comm.)
Roecklein J 1987 pp 330 [USE]
Duke J 1979 pp 97
Hartmann T 1981 pp 602 [TEMP, KTMP, DEP, DRA, SAL, PH]
Rehm S 1991 pp 243 [USE]
Duke J 1975 pp 10 [PH, RAIN, TEMP]
Hackett C 1982 pp 99 [FER, PHO, DEP, PH, TEXT, TEMP]
Woodroof J 1979 pp 327-564 [RAIN, DRA, TEXT, PH, FER]
Van Waveren E 1993 pp 73
Hockings E 1961b pp 304-307 [TEMP, KTMP, TEXT, DRA, FER, PH]
Wickens G 1995 pp 23-25 [USE, FER, DEP, DRA]