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Vanilla planifolia

AuthorityJacks. ex Andrews
SynonymsVanilla fragrans (Salisb.) Ames
Common namesanggrek, banira, baunilha, hsiang-Ts'ao, panili, tlilxochitl, vaniglia, vanil', vanilie, vanilj, vanilla, vanille, waanilaa, wanila
Ecocrop code2131

BRIEF DESCRIPTION A herbaceous climbing vine. It can climb up to a height of 5-15 m. The stems are green and fleshy and supported by aerial roots. The fruit is a dar-brown, 3-angled capsule 15-28 cm long containing many small seeds. USES It is grown for its immature fruits from which vanilla is extracted. It is used to flavour ice-cream, chocolate, beverages, cakes, custard, puddings, desserts and other confectionery. It is used as a spice and it is also used in perfumes and soaps and have medicinal properties. GROWING PERIOD Perennial. Short cuttings, 30 cm in length, will take 3-5 years to flower and fruit, longer cuttings, 90-100 cm can fruit after 1-2 years. The plant has an economical life of about 10-15 years. Fruits mature in 180-270 days. COMMON NAMES Vanilla, Vanille, Bannitta, Vainilla, Panili, Anggrek, Waanilaa. FURTHER INF Scientific synonym: V. fragrans. Vanilla is native of southeastern Mexico and Central America. In the wild state vanilla usually grows climbing on trees in warm, wet tropical low land forests from sea-level to 600 m in elevation. It thrives in hot moist insular climates with frequent, but not excessive rain and it require two drier months to check vegetative growth and bring the vines into flower. It is usually found within the latitudinal range 20°N-20°S. Too heavy rain during the ripening of the fruits can have a harmfull effect. The fruits are harvested before they are fully ripe, after which the are fermented and cured. Yields are very variable. A good vanillery may yield about 2.5-4 t/ha per year of fresh fruit, which gives 500-800 kg/ha of cured beans. Mentioned as a useful agroforestry species.
SOURCES (V. planifolia H.C. Andrews)
Purseglove J 1981 pp 644-735 [RAIN, TEMP, DRA, TEXT, LIG]
Roecklein J 1987 pp 108 [USE]
Duke J 1975 pp 30 [PH, RAIN, TEMP]
Williams C 1979a pp 232-233 [DRA, TEXT, RAIN]
Purseglove J 1972 pp 403-415 [USE, TEMP, RAIN, TEXT, DRA, LIG]
Nair P 1980 pp 307-308 [USE, LIG, TEXT]
Westphal E 1989 pp 270-274 [TEMP, RAIN, TEXT, DRA, PH, LIG]