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Tamarindus indica

SynonymsTamarindus occidentalis Gaertn. Fruct. 2000, Tamarindus officinalis Hook., Tamarindus umbrosa Salisb.
Common names'am' pul, amalika, ambli, amli, ampil, arabeb, aradeib, ardeib, asam jawa, assam, b/roka, bakham, camalindo, chinch, chinta, chitz, dabe, daharg, dakah, dakar (Senegal), dakhar, danufi, dereho, dindie, ghroma, gianko, hamar, hemor, homar, homor, humar, humer, imli, Indian date, jammeh, jammi, jubai', kalamagi, khaam, kham, khoua me, komar, Koria (Wolayetgna), kuashi, Madeira mahogany, magyee, magyi, maha, majee-pen, mak kham, makham, masika, me, mkwaju, mushishi, mwemba, ndakhar, ol-masamburai, omar, paun, puli, pulian, racahu, ragai (Soddu), Rogo'ota (Konsogna), roka, roka (Galinya), salomagi, sampaloc, sampalok, shekere, sitta, siyambala, somkham, tamanha, tamarainer, tamarenn, tamarihindi, tamarin, tamarind, tamarind-hendi, tamarinde, tamarindeiro, tamarindier, tamarindizio, tamarindo, tamarineiro, tamarinheiro, tamarinho, tambaring, tetili, tetul, tintiff, tintul, titis, tommar, trai me, ttri, ukwaju
Ecocrop code2047

BRIEF DESCRIPTION A medium sized to tall tree 20-30 m in height, usually with a 1-2 m long bole, 1-2 m in diameter. The crown is dense and spreading with compound leaves, with 10-20 pairs of leaflets 1-2 cm long. Pods are oblong, irregularly curved, 5-10 cm in length. USES The fruit is comsumed fresh, made into candies, beverages, sherbets, sauces, chutnies, curries, and marinades. The seeds are edible after cooking, they are used as a carbohydrate source for sizing cloth, paper, and jute products, and they are made into vegetable gum and used in food processing. Flowers and leaves can be eaten in salad. The pulp can be preserved with salt or sugar and used as an ingredient of bottled sauces. Wood used as charcoal and the tree planted as ornamental and shade trees. Mentioned as a useful agroforestry species. KILLING T Killed by frost when young, but once established it may withstand -2 to -3°C. GROWING PERIOD Perennial. Commonly, the tree grows between 0.5-0.8 m per year and the seedlings takes 6-8 or up to 12 years to mature and yield fruit. The tree may still be productive after 200 years. COMMON NAMES Tamarind, Indian date, Indian tamarind, Tamarinde, Tamarindo, Tambaring, Ma khaam, Asam jawa, Asam, Sampaloc, Tamarin, Tamarinier, Dabe, Ngatabbi, N'jame, Yammere, Basors, Bassasu, Bochocho, Tchimia, Samia, Aradeib, Ardeib, Tamr Hindi, Hamar, Epeduru, Ol-Masamburai, Mkwaju, Msisi, Kalamagi, Salomagi, Magyee, Majee-pen, 'Am'pul, Ampil, Khoua me, Khaam, Mak kham, Makham, Somkham, Me, Trai me. FURTHER INF Scientific synonyms: T. occidentalis, T. officinalis. Tamarind is probably native of tropical Ethiopia and Central Africa. It has a deep root system and can tolerate very strong winds without damage. It can be found at elevations between sea level and 1500 m. The seedlings are said to prefer soils relatively rich in organic matter in the shadow of the baobab. A marked an extended dry season seems necessary for the formation of fruit and wet conditions during the final stages of fruit development are detrimental. In the wet tropics with annual rainfall above 4000 mm the tree does not flower. Optimum yield of fruits is about 16 t/ha, or 150-300 kg per tree. Swampy sites, stagnant water and dense rock is not suitable for tamarind.
Grassland Index
Hackett C 1982 pp 115 [PH, TEXT, TEMP, DRA]
Popenoe W 1974 pp 432
Jansen P 1981 pp 244-256 [RAIN, DRA, TEXT, FER, KTMP, USE]
Roecklein J 1987 pp 242 [USE]
Sims D (pers. comm.)
Troup R 1921 pp 362
AGLS A 1991 pp 31
Nagy S 1980 pp 58
Lotschert W 1983 pp 223
Purseglove J 1969 pp 204-206 [DRA, FER]
Duke J 1981 pp 228-230 [DRA, FER, DEP, TEXT, RAIN, TEMP, PH]
Nair P 1984 pp 25 [TEXT, DEP, DRA, USE]
Skerman P 1988 pp 586-587 [USE]
National RC 1979 pp 117
IBPGR 1984 pp 103
Maydell H 1986 pp 383-387 [RAIN, DEP, LIG, SAL, TEXT, PH, USE]
Martin F 1984 pp 250-252 [TEMP, RAIN, PHO, DRA, FER, USE]
Verheij E 1991 pp 298-301 [USE, TEXT, RAIN, KTMP]