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Nephelium lappaceum

SynonymsNephelium chryseum Blume, Nephelium gabrum Cambess., Nephelium mutabile Blume var. pallens Hiern in Hook.f., Nephelium sufferugineum Ralk., Xerospermum topengii Merr.
Common nameschle (Cambodia), chle sao mao (Cambodia), litchi chevelu, ngaw, phruan (Thailand), ramboetan, rambootan, rambotang, ramboutan, rambustan, rambut (= 'hair'in Malay), rambutan, rambutao, rambuteira, ser mon (Cambodia), shao tzu, usan (Philippines), usare (Philippines), usau (Philippines)
Ecocrop code1528

BRIEF DESCRIPTION A bushy, evergreen tree with a spreading habit reaching 5-20 m in height. The fruit is bright red when ripe and the skin is covered with soft, fleshy spines, up to 6 x 3.5 cm. Leaves ovate to obovate, 2-28 x 2-10.5 cm. USES In good cultivars the edible aril is plump, sweet and juicy. The sweet tasting fruits are eaten fresh, the more sour ones are eaten stewed. It can also be canned or used as jam, but loses a lot of its flavour. The seed kernels can be used for the production of a solid fat, which is edible and also used for soap and candles. Most parts of the tree have medicinal properties and young shoots, fruit walls and leaves are used as dye. The wood can be used for general construction and the tree can be grown as an ornamental. KILLING T Young trees up to 3-4 years will not tolerate frost, while older trees may survive -1 to -2°C. Temperatures about 5-6°C will cause defoliation. GROWING PERIOD Perennial. Begins to bear 5-7 years after sowing or 3-5 years after planting. Yields increase up to 8-10 years, the economic life is about 15-20 years and may be up to 30 years, and the tree may last up to 60 years. COMMON NAMES Rambutan, Hairy litchee, Ramboutan, Litchi chevelu, Rambut, Ramustan, Ngo phruan, Usan, Ser mon, Chle sao mao, Ngoh, Phruan, Chom chom, Vai thieu. FURTHER INF Scientific synonym: N. glabrum. N. chryseum, N. sufferrugineum. Rambutan is probably indigenous to Malaysia and Indonesia. It require hot and humid conditions and thrives in the humid tropical lowlands at elevations between sea level and 600 m, within about 12° from the equator. It can, however, tolerate climates with 2-3 dry months. It occurs in both primary and secondary forests. It is best grown in the shade when young and the tree needs wind protection. Trees usually fruit twice a year giving 1000-1500 fruits per tree per year at 5-7 years and 5000-6000 fruits per tree for older trees. Very good trees may produce up to 170 kg per tree. Yields may be from 2-20 t/ha. Mentioned as a useful agroforestry species.
SOURCES (N. lappaceum L.)
Hackett C 1982 pp 109 [FER, PHO, DEP, PH, TEXT, TEMP]
Popenoe W 1974 pp 327-329 [TEMP, DEP, FER, DRA]
Williams C 1979a pp 134-135 [RAIN, TEXT, FER, DRA]
Samson J 1982 pp 13
Samson J 1986 pp 295-300 [TEXT, FER, DRA, LIG]
Almeyda N 1979
IBRGR 1986 pp 123
Lotschert W 1983 pp 228
Mac Donaid I 1984
Williams C 1982
Vandenput R 1981 pp 1029
Delabarre Y 1989 pp 93
Nair P 1984 pp 24 [RAIN, TEMP, TEXT, DEP, DRA, PH, USE]
Janick J 1991 pp 461
Voortman R (pers. comm.)
Purseglove J 1974 pp 644 [USE]
Roecklein J 1987 pp 235 [USE]
Westphal E 1989 pp 196-200 [USE, DRA, RAIN, LIMIT, DEP, DRA, FER, TEXT, PH]