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Mangifera indica

SynonymsMangifera amba Forsk., Mangifera domestica Gaertn., Mangifera gladiata Boj., Mangifera racemosa Boj., Mangifera rubra Boj.
Common namesam, ambo, ampelam, asai, lebu (Simbo), ma-muang, mago, mamuang, manga, mangga, mango, mango tree, Mangobaum, mangue, mangueira, manguier, mempelam, mengo, mwàngx, rereke (Roviana), svaay, tharyetthi, veselperske, xoài
Ecocrop code1416

BRIEF DESCRIPTION An erect, branched, evergreen tree reaching 10-45 m in height, with a trunk diameter of 60-120 cm and a deep tap-root system. Fruit a fleshy drupe, very variable in shape, size and colour, usually ovoid-oblong, up to 30 cm x 10 cm and yellowish-green to reddish. USES The fruit is a good source of vitamin A, it is eaten fresh or made into juice, squash, jams, jellies, or preserves. Unripe fruits are used in pickles, chutneys, and culinary preparations. The seeds are used as food or ground for flour. Leaves can be used as cattle feed. Timber is used in many ways and valued for boat building. KILLING T A few hours of temperatures from -5 to 1°C may damage or kill bearing trees are damaged. Young trees and actively growing shoots are likely to be killed at -1°C. Flowers are not frost tolerant and fruits are liable to chilling injury at 4-10°C or 8-12°C, depending on the cultivar. GROWING PERIOD Perennial. Seedlings may grow 3-7 years before first bearing and the tree may only produce one good crop every 3-4 year. Yields increase up to the 20th year, decline after the 40th year and the tree may live for 100 years or more. The fruiting cycle is 150-270 days and the time of development after fertilization to maturity of fruit is 60-150 days, depending on cultivar and temperature. COMMON NAMES Mango, Ghari am, Am, Ambo amri, Manguier, Mamuang, Mangga, Mempelam, Ampelam, Mavena, Mavu, Amba, Ambo, Amra, Maa, Mamadi, Paho, Tharyetthi, Svaay, Mwangx, Xoai. FURTHER INF Mango originates from the Indo-Burmese monsoon region. It thrives in both tropical and subtropical areas within the latitudinal range is 30°N to 25°S. It can for non-commercial production be grown at elevations up to 1200 m and up to 600 m for commercial production. It does best with strongly marked seasons in the tropical summer rainfall regions with dry weather and moderate humidity for flowering and fruiting. High humidity, mist and heavy dew promote fungal attack, while low humidity and drying wind can cause wilting and strong winds may destroy the crop. In areas with two wet seasons flowering and fruit production may occur twice each year, but normally only one crop per year is produced. Very fertile soils with adequate supplies of water thoughout the year may result in luxuriant vegetative growth and poor cropping. The trees are drought-tolerant and do not seem to suffer from occasional flooding. According to Purseglove even shallow and impervious soils produce mangoes, but for optimal conditions the watertable should be below 2-2.5 m. Photosynthesis pathway C 3 II. In the 10th year, a tree bears 400-600 fruits. A plantation of full-grown trees may produce 10-30 t/ha of fruit year. Average yields are, however often quit low e.g. in the Philippines 6 t/ha, in Peninsular Malaysia 3.5 t/ha and in Thailand 2.3 t/ha.
SOURCES (M. indica L.)
Sims D (pers. comm.)
Kozlowski T 1977 pp 481
Rhem S 1991 pp 185-186 [RAIN, KTMP, TEXT, DRA]
Rice R 1990 pp 89-94 [DEP, DRA, PH, RAIN, FER]
Maas E 1990 pp 281
Hartmann T 1981 pp 630-631 [KTMP, TEMP, RAIN, TEXT, DEP, DRA]
Samson J 1986 pp 216-234 [KTMP, TEMP, RAIN, LIMIT,
Landon J 1986 pp 280 [TEXT, DRA, DEP, PH, FER, SAL]
Eswaran H 1986
Roecklein J 1987 pp 226 [USE, TEXT, DEP, FER, DRA]
Hackett C 1982 pp 118 [FER, PHO, DEP, PH, TEXT, TEMP]
Popenoe W 1974 pp 95
Kernick M 1961 pp 397
Purseglove J 1974 pp 24-32 [TEMP, RAIN, TEXT, DRA, DEP, PH, FER]
Joshi H 1980a pp 293-298 [TEMP, RAIN, TEXT, DRA, PH, LIG]
Nair P 1984 pp 22
Van Waveren E 1993 pp 67
Kostermans A 1993 pp 88-107 [TEMP, RAIN, LIMIT, FER, DEP, PH]
Verheij E 1991 pp 211-216 [USE, KTMP, TEMP, RAIN, TEXT, DRA, DEP, FER, PH]