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Foeniculum vulgare

SynonymsAnethum foeniculum L., Foeniculum capillaceum Gilib., Foeniculum officinale All., Meum foeniculum Spreng.
Common namesAetheroleum foeniculi, Aqua foeniculi, badian, ensilal, faenkål, Fenchel, fennel, fennel seed, fenouil, fenouil sucre, finocchio, Foeniculi fructus, funcho, fyenkhel', hinojo, hui-hsiang, insilali (Galinya), kamuni (Galinya), raz, saunf, shamar, sweet fennel, uikyo, venkel, vinkel
Ecocrop code1107

BRIEF DESCRIPTION A tall, erect herb reaching 1.5-2 m in height. The stem is abundantly branched, rounded and ash-white, the inflorescence is a doubly compound flat umbel and the flowers small and yellow. USES The seeds are used for flavouring vegetables, salads, fish, sauces, tea, cakes and liqueurs and they also have medicinal properties. The leaves are used as garnish or potherbs. Leaf stalks are eaten in salads or blanched as cooked vegetables. GROWING PERIOD Perennial, biennial or annual. The seeds germinate within 14-20 days from sowing, first harvest of leaves may be taken 30-40 days from transplanting, first harvest of seeds after 55-70 days and first harvest of the swollen stem bases after 90-110 days. 1st year yield is low, the life expectancy is 4-5 years. COMMON NAMES Fennel, Fenouil, Hinojo, Fenchel, Venkel, Florence fennel, Finocchio. (var. vulgare : Bitter or Wild fennel, var. dulce : Sweet or Roman fennel). FURTHER INF Scientific synonyms: F. dulce, F. officinale, F. capillaceum, F. foeniculum, Anethum foeniculum, A. rupestre, Ligusticum foeniculum, Meum foeniculum, Ozodia foeniculum, Selinum foeniculum. In the tropics, dry season cultivation of fennel at altitudes over 500 m is most successful. In India, it is grown up to 2000 m and in Ethiopia between 1500-2500 m. The species is indigenous to the Mediteranean region and southern Europe. The crop develops a vegetative mass of 40-60 t/ha. Expected seed yields are 0.4 t/ha in the first year, 1.0-2.0 t/ha in the second year and 0.6-1.5 t/ha in the third year. Mentioned as a useful agroforestry species.
SOURCES (F. vulgare Mill.)
Tindall H 1983 pp 409-411 [FER, TEMP, RAIN]
Duke J 1987 pp 389
Duke J 1975 pp 17 [PH, RAIN, TEMP]
Jansen P 1981 pp 20-29 [TEXT, LIG, FER, DRA, PHO, TEMP, KTMP]
Roecklein J 1987 pp 389 [USE, DRA, TEXT]
Nair P 1980 pp 301 [USE]
Hornok L 1992 pp 162-166 [TEMP, RAIN, LIG, DRA, TEXT, USE]
Small E (pers. comm.)